The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is rising at 6% per annum across the globe, however treatment options for end stage renal disease have not changed in more than half a century. This represents a significant imperative for the development of novel treatments for kidney disease. Regenerative medicine is hoped to provide such alternatives. One approach involves the regeneration of kidney cell types via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. We have developed a protocol for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into kidney organoids containing collecting duct epithelium, patterned and segmenting nephrons, surrounding interstitium and vasculature. This involves the stepwise induction of posterior primitive streak, anterior and posterior intermediate mesoderm and ultimately progenitors of all epithelial and non-epithelial components of the final organ. The development of this protocol opens up the possibility of patient-derived disease modelling, drug screening, cellular therapies and even the bioengineering replacement renal tissue. In this presentation we will discuss these various applications and what progress has been made to date.